What is the ROM and How Does it work?

ROM (Read Only Memory) kya hai or kis tarah se kaam karti hai? Iske kya Characteristics hain or ye kitne type ki hoti hai? Ye sab aaj hum is blog me padhenge.

ROM Kya hai?

ROM (Read Only Memory) ek type ki nhi hoti iske kai types hote hai. Aaj ki badlti technology me isme bhi changes aaye hai. Hum aaj is article me padhenge ki ROM kitne type ki hoti hai, yeh kis tarah kaam karti hai or iski kya importance hai. Hum me se koi bhi jab Mobile, Laptop kharidte hai to RAM or ROM jaise word zarur sunne ko milte hai. Or khayal zarur aata hi hoga ki yeh kya hai, or kis tarah se kaam karti hai. Or iska size mobile phone or computer me kitna hona chahiye.

Mobile phone ki baat karein to aksar dekhne ko milta hai ki phone me 32GB, 64GB RAM or 128GB, 256GB ROM dekhne ko milti hai. Lekin 32GB RAM me 29GB RAM mobile show karta or 64GB RAM me 56GB ya kuch kam kuchh jyada free space milta hai. Aaj hum is bat ko samjhenge ki esa kyu hota hai. 

ROM Memory Read Only Memory hoti jaisa ki iske naam se hi pta chal rha hai ki yeh ek read memory hai. Isme ek fixed program hota hai (ya isko hum permanent memory keh sakte hai). Iske program ko aasani se nhi badla jaa sakta hai. Jaise jab aap computer ko kharidte hai to usme BIOS program pehle se hi rehta hai. Ye system computer ko ‘On’ karne me madad karta hai, iske sath BIOS Computer or Operating system ko link karta hai.

BIOS naye computer me pehle si rehta hai, or jis memory me yeh rehta hai usi ka naam ROM hai. Example ke liye FIRMWARE Software program jo ki hardware se juda rehta hai, or firmware me jo program hai vo bhi ROM chip me rehta hai.

Is Memory ko Non-Volatile memory bhi kehte hai. Is memory ko tab banaya jata hai, jab computer banaye jate hai. ROM ko sirf computer or mobile me istemal nhi kiya jata ye or bhi electronic device me istemal ki jati hai. Jaise Washing machine, Microwave, Oven, T.V, A.C, Lift me bhi is memory ka upyog kiya jata hai. Badalti technology ke dour me is memory me bhi changes hue hai. To chaliye baat karte hein ROM ke types ke bare mein. 

ROM ki Visheshtaye (Characteristics of ROM)

  • ROM ek permanent (isthir) memory hoti hai.
  • Basic functionality ke command hi store rehte hai.
  • ROM apne naam ki tarah Readable memory hoti hai.
  • ROM, RAM ke muqable me jyada sasti hoti hai.
  • ROM CPU ka hi bhaag hoti hai.
ROM

ROM ke prakar (Types of ROM)

  1. MROM
  2. PROM
  3. EPROM
  4. EEPROM
1. MROM :- MROM ka poora naam ‘Mask Read Only Memory’ hota hai. Isey Manufactures ki taraf se device me hi programmed kiya jata hai. MROM other ROM ke comparison me sasti or kam space me zyada data store karne ki capacity provide karati hai, means iski data store Density zyada hoti hai.

2. PROM :- PROM ka full form Programmable Read Only Memory hota hai. Is memory chip me data ek bar likha jata hai, jo hamesha isme moujood rehta hai. Is ROM me data likhne ke liye khaas machine ka use kiya jaata hai. Inhe PROM Programmer ya PROM Burner bhi kaha jaata hai or PROM Data likhne ki process ko ‘PROM Burning’ kaha jaata hai.

3. EPROM :- Iska pura naam Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory hota hai. Erasable means iske data ko mitaya jaa sakta hai. Data ko mitane ke liye Ultra-Violet Light ka istemal kiya jaata hai.

4. EEPROM:- EEPROM ka poora naam ‘Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory’ hota hai. Jiska Data kisi Electrical Charge se mitaya ja sakta hai. EEPROM other ROM ke muqable thodi slow hoti hai.

ROM kis tarah kam karti hai ?

Jab computer ko ‘On’ kiya jaata hai to ROM computer ko yeh batati hai ki uske sath kon-kon se hardware attach hein, jaise ki Mouse, Keyboard, Hard disk. Generically isey “BIOS” (Basic Input Output System) kaha jaata hai. Ye apke computer ko help karte hai sabhi startup routines ko access karne me, jo ki store hote hein. Isme disk drive or computation me RAM ka use bhi karte hai. Ye BIOS store hote hein ROM chip me taki computer ko pata chal sake uske sath kon-kon se hardware judey hue hai.

RAM ki tarah hi ROM me bhi columns or rows ke grid hote hein. Lekin columns or rows intersect karte hai, vo in ROM chips me fundamentally RAM ki tulna me alag hote hai. Jahan RAM transistors ka istemal karte hue ek capacitor ko turn on ya off karne ke liye use intersection me access ke douran ROM diode ka istemal karti hai. In lines ko connect karne ke liye value 1 hona chahiye. Agar value 0 hai to lines bilkul bhi connect nhi hote hai.

ROM chip ko achi tarah se kaam karne ke liye iski perfect programming or iske sath complete Data ka hona bahut jaruri hai jab chip ko create kiya jaa rha hota hai. Esa isliye kyunki aap standard ROM chip ko bar-bar re-program ya re-write nahi kar sakte hai. Yadi kuch galat ho jata hai ya koi Data aapko update karna hota hai, to tab aapko ROM badalna padega ya naya banana padega. Isliye ROM chip ke original template ko create karna bahut hi kadi mehnat or muskil hota hai. Isme bahut se trial or error kiye jate hai.


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